Coronavirus Impact on Manufacturing from China

Unless you are living under a rock, you may have heard about the coronavirus originated in Wuhan, China. The Hubei province, and much of China, is in complete lockdown with many businesses closed, and people staying home as the government extended Chinese New Year for a few days until the epidemic is under control.

This should obviously have an economic impact, at least in the short term, for the next few weeks or months since people are asked to stay home, and a lot of goods consumed is manufactured in China. And indeed, some companies are announcing delays due to the virus.

Coronavirus-manufacturing-china

It’s difficult to find updates of delivery time from companies actually based in China, potentially because they need to check with their sub-suppliers to check whether they are affected by the virus or not. But I’d assume if you have purchased products from Aliexpress, GearBest, GeekBuying, and the likes, and if the parcel has not left China yet, you won’t get it anytime soon unless there are stock at the suppliers’ warehosue. By the way, the virus needs a carrier (e.g. living creature) to stay alive, so there’s no risk to get infected with the coronavirus from a package since it takes several weeks to arrive at its destination.

So far by Feb 1st,2020, Chinese government has officially extended the Lunar Spring Festival to Feb 10th,2020. And only some important retailed shops, foods market, logitic company, mask factories etc are allowed to run first. As I witness, some Chinese companies will have their employee work at home for the week of Feb 3 to Feb 7th, so I believe they will update you the situations when you talk to them if you buy from them.

So beside the human toll, there will be an economic impact, but only time will tell just how much this impact will be.

China’s Manufacturing Transformation under the Industrial Internet

China's Manufacturing Transformation under the Industrial Internet

The fundamental reason for the sustained and rapid growth of China’s economy over the past 30 years of reform and opening up lies in the establishment of a manufacturing strategy that suits the national conditions, that is, to take advantage of China’s labor force and market advantages, participate in the international division of labor, integrate into the value chain, and become World Factory.
From the historical experience, the rise and decline of a country’s economic strength has a lot to do with the degree of industrialization. The transfer of economic power in a large country is based on the change in the status of the manufacturing industry.
Therefore, the improvement of China’s overall national strength and economic competitiveness depends on the industrialization process and the rise of the manufacturing industry, thereby establishing the world’s most complete industrial category, the largest scale, and the strongest supporting capabilities of the manufacturing system.

However, after more than three decades of development, China’s manufacturing industry has faced multiple challenges in recent years.
On the one hand, marked by Germany’s proposal of Industry 4.0, the world has entered a period of rapid development of a new round of industrial revolution and industrial competition. Advanced manufacturing countries such as Europe, the United States, and Japan have put forward their own strategies for the development of emerging industries in order to grab the commanding heights of high-end manufacturing in the digital age.
On the other hand, the labor cost advantage that China’s manufacturing industry relies on is gradually being lost as the demographic structure changes. The wages of ordinary workers continue to rise rapidly, and the phenomenon of difficulty in recruiting and expensive labor in the southeast coastal areas has led to the start of new industrial transfers in China’s labor-intensive manufacturing industries, which have flowed to Southeast Asian countries.

As a wrestling field for large countries to participate in global technology and industry competition, the use of advanced manufacturing technologies to promote labor saving, efficiency and cost reduction has become the due meaning of manufacturing transformation and upgrading and sustainable development. China cannot miss this economic structure. Opportunity for adjustment.

At the same time, emerging middle-class consumers are increasingly demanding in terms of quality, functionality, and design of manufactured products. Not only must it meet basic use values, but it must also have certain aesthetic, trend, and even artistic values. This is a personalized consumer experience and psychological satisfaction. Changes on the demand side force the supply side to develop in the direction of high-quality, personalized, customized, and rapid iterative products.

Therefore, in 2015, the State Council issued the “Made in China 2025” strategy to promote China’s transition from a large manufacturing country to a strong manufacturing country. The report of the 19th National Congress of the CPC emphasized that on the one hand, it is necessary to accelerate the development of advanced manufacturing and promote the deep integration of the Internet, big data, artificial intelligence and the real economy; on the other hand, it is necessary to support the optimization and upgrading of traditional industries and promote China’s industry to move into the global value chain. High-end, cultivate a number of world-class advanced manufacturing clusters.

In the implementation of this series of new development concepts and strategies, the transformation path of China’s manufacturing industry has gradually become clear, that is, to promote the transformation of production methods by promoting “machine replacement” and the construction of industrial automation and information technology with the Industrial Internet as the main content. Achieve smart manufacturing.

1 Machine substitution
As early as 1970-1980, the United States, Japan and other countries proposed the concept of industrial automation, mainly to solve the problem of adverse effects on people and the production environment in industrial manufacturing, such as waste of resources, production instability and variability, etc. .

Due to the low labor cost in China in the past, the economic benefits of large-scale automation are not obvious, so there is no need to vigorously promote it. However, under the impact of “labor shortage”, “machine replacement” becomes inevitable, is the core of industrial transformation, and is the basis for the development of the Industrial Internet.

The Industrial Internet refers to the industrial and application ecology formed by the full-scale and deep integration of the Internet and the new generation of information technology and industrial systems. It is a key comprehensive information infrastructure for the intelligent development of industry.

Its essence is based on the network interconnection between machines, raw materials, control systems, information systems, products and people. Through the comprehensive depth perception of industrial data, real-time transmission and exchange, rapid calculation processing and advanced modeling and analysis, it can realize the transformation from a single machine. Intelligent decision-making and dynamic optimization to production lines, workshops, and even entire plants.

It can be seen that the development of the Industrial Internet is based on the automation and informatization of the manufacturing process, and it is moving towards data and intelligence.

Taking Guangdong Province as an example, since 2014, governments at all levels have successively introduced policies to promote technological transformation of enterprises and implement “machine substitution” and “equipment substitution”. For example, the Dongguan Municipal Government successively launched the “About Accelerating the Promotion of Industry” in August 2014. “Implementation Opinions on the Development of Robot Intelligent Equipment Industry”, “Dongguan City’s Action Plan for Promoting Enterprise” Machine Substitution “(2014-2016), and” Mechanical Substitution “Measures for Fund Management.

The Foshan Municipal Government formulated the Implementation Plan of Foshan Supporting Enterprises to Promote the Application of Robots and Intelligent Equipment (2015-2017) in May 2015; the Guangdong Provincial Government formulated the Guangdong Intelligent Manufacturing Development Plan (2015-2025) in July 2015 ) “.

From the perspective of the promotion effect of the policy, in 2017, Guangdong Province had 156 key robot manufacturing enterprises, and the province’s industrial robot output was 20,662 units, a year-on-year increase of 50.2%, accounting for 16% of the country’s output, and the holding amount was about 80,000 units.

Specifically, in Dongguan, from September 2014 to January 2017, enterprises applied for a total of 2698 “machine substitution” special fund projects, with a total financial investment of approximately 38.6 billion yuan, 76315 new equipment and instruments, and the number of projects and investment. Both rank first in Guangdong Province.

In Foshan, from 2015 to 2017, the municipal government financed a total of 160 million yuan, supporting 368 projects, and driving more than 400 enterprises above designated size to carry out “machine substitution” and more than 7,000 robots.

On this basis, starting in 2017, Guangdong took the lead in the nationwide deployment and advance development of the Industrial Internet as a new engine point for the transformation and upgrading of the real economy and manufacturing industry, and to achieve high-quality development by promoting the digital transformation of enterprises.

In March 2018, the “Implementation Plan for Deepening the” Internet + Advanced Manufacturing “Development of Industrial Internet in Guangdong Province” and “Several Supporting Policies for Guangdong Province to Support Enterprises on the” Cloud on the Platform “to Accelerate the Development of Industrial Internet (2018-2020)” were issued, It is expected that through policy guidance, Guangdong will promote 10,000 industrial enterprises to implement digital and network-based intelligent upgrades on the platform, driving 200,000 enterprises to “on the cloud and on the platform” and reducing the cost of information construction.

The purpose of “Upper Cloud Platform” is to realize the interconnection and interoperability of production and manufacturing links such as R & D design, production control, equipment control, process improvement, energy consumption optimization, and supply chain coordination, as well as data connection on the equipment side and management side.

These data will automatically determine the decision of each link of the production system, and realize the integration of upstream and downstream production. The ultimate goal is to analyze the data to forecast demand, forecast manufacturing, and use the data to integrate the industrial chain and value chain to create new knowledge and value.

2 Directions
As manufacturing processes and business activities become more complex, relying on human experience and analysis, it is no longer possible to meet such complex management and collaborative optimization needs, so big data is bound to rise in the industrial field.

Big data is an important feature of the Industrial Internet, because in the process of “machine replacement”, the controller of the automation equipment will generate a large amount of data. With the development of sensor technology and communication technology, the cost of collecting real-time data is no longer No matter how expensive it is.

The rise of embedded systems, low-energy-consumption semiconductors, processors, and cloud computing has greatly increased the computing power of the device and has the ability to process large data in real time.

The Industrial Internet realizes the status of production sites, collaborative enterprise information, and market user needs through the collection and exchange of massive data, the integration and processing of heterogeneous data, edge computing of machine data, solidified iteration of empirical models, and cloud-based big data calculation and analysis. Accurate calculation and complex analysis, thus forming management decisions for enterprise operations and control instructions for machine operation, driving the intelligence and optimization of machinery and equipment, operation management, and business activities.

Realizing the interconnection of industrial robots and other automation equipment, and collecting and analyzing production data are generally recognized directions for the development of the Industrial Internet in China. However, how to use industrial big data and the mining of business value need to be further tested by the market.

Therefore, at this stage, the construction of the industrial Internet infrastructure should be strengthened, especially to enable small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises to gradually increase their level of automation and informationization, improve production efficiency, and find new business models for data utilization.

Although the Industrial Internet is still a new thing, the author found in the survey that some enterprises in Guangdong have begun to actively use the Industrial Internet for digital transformation. In addition to the application of industrial robots and other automation equipment, more and more enterprises have begun to introduce enterprises. Resource Planning (ERP) and Manufacturing Execution System (MES).

ERP is an enterprise information management system that integrates material resources, capital resources and information resources for the manufacturing industry. Its main functions include supply chain management, sales and marketing, distribution, customer service, financial management, manufacturing management, and inventory. Management, plant and equipment maintenance, human resources, reporting, manufacturing execution systems, workflow services, and enterprise information systems.

MES is to optimize the management of the entire production process by ordering the product to the completion of the product through information transmission. MES needs to collect a large amount of real-time data in the production process and make timely processing of real-time events, while maintaining two-way communication capabilities with the planning and control layers, receiving corresponding data from the upper and lower layers, and feeding back processing results and production instructions.

This production mode considers the planning and scheduling of the manufacturing system, tracking, monitoring and control, material flow, quality management, equipment control, and computer integrated manufacturing interface as a whole, so as to ultimately implement the automation of the manufacturing process.

MES has great potential and development space in solving the pain points of Chinese manufacturing enterprises. The current pain points facing manufacturing companies mainly include the lack of timely control of production progress, passive maintenance of equipment maintenance, inadequate staff skills, slow action during abnormal production, slow response to order tailing, production schedules failing to reach the production line, and the delivery cycle is too long. Long, resulting in orders not being delivered on time.

Due to uneven staff skills, long product switchover times, intelligent departments are too slow to respond to field problems, and abnormal data cannot be reported in time, resulting in low production efficiency.

Due to the formalities of the first article inspection, uncontrolled key positions, rework of defective products, and failure to strictly implement the rework process, customer complaints could not be traced back to specific positions and no materials, data analysis was not systematic, improvement effects could not be verified, and quality problems were frequent hair.

Due to the random loss of materials, it is impossible to adjust the staffing in time according to the production process, the number of work in process is large, and it cannot be quickly resolved. The manual statistical production report has a large workload and poor timeliness, resulting in excessive manufacturing costs.

For example, in Shunde, Guangdong, the home appliance manufacturing industry has the advantage of a complete industrial chain, but the consumer market places higher requirements on product quality. How to solve the problems of low efficiency of the factory, too many workers on the job site, and too long logistics distance in the factory have become urgent matters.

Practice shows that the application of the MES system will promote internal efficiency, the management of defective products, and the management of various aspects have reached a level. For small and medium-sized enterprises, embracing the Industrial Internet is not unattainable. At present, some platform vendors have launched more “small, refined, light” system rental services that can be accurately resolved for enterprises with only tens of thousands of yuan each year. Pain points of the entire production process.

The author had an in-depth exchange with the product manager of a well-known MES company in Guangdong. This lean intelligent factory systematic solution provider is mainly for small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises on-site management. It provides SAAS based on industrial Internet, microservices, cloud computing, Internet of Things, big data technology architecture with low cost, fast deployment and easy operation and maintenance. Application, to realize the data and transparency of the workshop, improve production efficiency, reduce production costs, reduce material waste, and strengthen quality control.

“Using the JAWA microservices Internet architecture, using the lease model, that is, rent and use, pay annually, so that the overall cost is very low, enterprises can afford to achieve low cost, fast deployment, easy operation and maintenance, which is also the charm of the Industrial Internet Where “.

3 The only way

However, one problem that needs to be pointed out is that although China’s high-tech and strategic emerging industries have developed rapidly in recent years, their industrial scale is not enough, and labor-intensive manufacturing is still the main body of China’s industrial development. Because they are export-oriented, such companies are basically at the low and mid-end of the global value chain, and their profit margins are not high. Therefore, the technological transformation is thin and the risks are high, making it difficult to promote the Industrial Internet.

Coupled with the lack of independent innovation capabilities of China’s key systems, software and hardware core technologies, industrial big data, industrial cloud and other key industrial Internet technologies, platforms and applications are still in their infancy, small scale and weak functions, which has led many companies to develop automation and industrial The Internet has doubts and is still on the sidelines.

Although the Industrial Internet is considered the foundation of the new industrial revolution, implementation requires a practical foundation.

From the evolution process of global manufacturing technology, lean production from semi-automated Taylor-Ford system to Toyota of Japan is an inevitable path. This is exactly the path that Chinese SMEs need to take to gradually increase the proportion of automated production and strengthen lean management.

Some front-line managers of enterprises told the author that the implementation of the Industrial Internet should be based on the accumulation of lean production.

However, judging from the status quo of enterprises in different industries, many of them still lack in carrying out lean production. In this case, even if the Industrial Internet is used, the results will be greatly reduced. Therefore, for these companies, if they want to develop the Industrial Internet, they must also make up the lessons of Industry 2.0 and Industry 3.0.

Looking back at the history of manufacturing transformation in developed countries in the world, it can be found that Japanese companies attach importance to organizational culture and human training. Production experience and knowledge depend on the accumulation, use, and inheritance of people. Therefore, the automation and information construction of enterprises mainly revolves around helping People go to work. But in recent years, this idea has been challenged by the growing problem of aging.

German companies pay attention to the continuous upgrading of equipment and production systems, solidify production knowledge on equipment, and the main strategy to cope with labor shortages is to develop more advanced equipment and highly integrated automatic production lines.

As the world’s high-end manufacturing powerhouse, the United States pays the most attention to the role of data in the way it solves problems. Not only does it attach importance to data accumulation, but more importantly, it also attaches importance to data analysis. Factual management culture.

In addition, immigration has become an important means to solve the problem of labor shortage and knowledge accumulation in the manufacturing industry. The high-end manufacturing industry in the United States is good at subverting and redefining problems, such as using the industrial Internet to subvert the value system of manufacturing, and using digitalization, new materials, and new production methods. (3D printing) to overturn production methods in traditional manufacturing.

If China’s manufacturing industry wants to occupy a favorable position in the new global technology and industrial competition, automation and informatization in the production and management process are the only way.

Although facing multiple challenges, due to the establishment of a relatively complete manufacturing system in China and the continuous consolidation of the network information technology foundation, the integration and development of manufacturing and the Internet have continued to deepen, laying a good foundation for the further development of the Industrial Internet.

The Industrial Internet essentially still depends on the upgrading and transformation of industrial technology of enterprises, and the advancement of information technologies such as 5G mobile communications, the Internet of Things, high-performance computing, and cloud computing can play a good role in assisting improvement.

Finally, another bottleneck in the future development of the Industrial Internet is the lack of talent.

In addition to advanced algorithm tools for industrial big data analysis, it is more important to combine domain knowledge of industrial scenarios and application principles. In other words, the analyst of the data must not only know the intelligent algorithm very well, but also the production system.

At present, enterprises are short of compound talents who understand both industrial production and information technology. The cultivation of such industrial big data analysis talents is difficult to cultivate in a short period of time. This requires special attention. It depends on the country and enterprises. And scientific research institutes and other parties work together to solve the problem.

Umbrella performance quality inspection standard

Umbrella performance quality inspection standard

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Switch performance detection: An umbrella is in your hand. First, you need to open the umbrella flexibly. Once you open it to the top, it is unobstructed and does not fall. It is just a matter of closing it. The switch parts do not malfunction or fall off. When using an automatic umbrella, good opening and closing is the standard, and the automatic button will not fail. The button must not be actuated by itself. Press the button lightly with your hand. The self-opening speed should be fast but not fierce, even and strong, and the pulling force should not be excessive when retracting.

Umbrella performance quality inspection standard

2. Umbrella bone inspection: The umbrella bone should not be easy to rust, the electroplated surface should be smooth, and the spring should be elastic. After the umbrella bone is retracted, it should be close to the umbrella pole. The upper, middle, and lower nest ties must be flattened so that they are level and without thorns. When the switch is used for recycling, the medium rod electroplating will not be surrounded by flowers and make metal noise.

3. Umbrella surface inspection: Umbrella cloth should be a special umbrella cloth with twill weave, and it should be flat and tight, no rain, no pollution, no holes, no jumping yarn, uniform color, similar flower shape and striped stitching. The surface of the nylon cloth umbrella should have a rain-proof resin glue, it should not leak during the rainstorm, there should be no obvious weaving defects and leaking pulp, and there must be no star light transmission. When the umbrella surface is opened, the umbrella shape should be full and beautiful, and should not be “pot-shaped” or “deep bowl-shaped”. The testing standard of rainbow umbrellas must be cleaned and cut off. The umbrella cloth must not have any thread ends.

4. Inspection of other parts: Umbrella should be round and bright, no burrs, no shelling, weld seam cracking, etc. The exposed end face should be flat without sharp, light and empty. The shape of the umbrella handle should be beautiful, firm, and comfortable, etc. In addition, after the umbrella is opened, the joints should not feel loose and fluttering when shaking.

5. Open umbrella test:
A. Remove the umbrella cover, open the buckle, and shake the umbrella surface to make it open evenly.
B. Push up on the button of the umbrella handle (be careful not to hold down the button) until the top of the umbrella is locked. After it is opened, shake the umbrella to see if it is firm.

6. Umbrella test:
A, Automatic umbrella hand at the button of the umbrella handle, gently press, the umbrella is closed. Press the switch button of the manual umbrella, and pull the umbrella gently to snap the umbrella to the switch position.

B. After folding, close the umbrella bone to the umbrella holder, then straighten the leaves one by one along the crease, and close the umbrella page in the same direction to find the umbrella buckle. The strap on the umbrella buckle can be tightened and rotated around the umbrella leaf once to buckle. When putting the umbrella cover, turn it clockwise downwards, and then you can easily insert the umbrella cover.

Why You Need a 3rd Party Inspection Service

Why You Need a 3rd Party Inspection Service

1. Inspection company services (inspection services)

In the process of product development and production, independent third-party inspections that can be trusted are required to conduct cargo inspections to ensure that customers’ product quality standards are met at every stage of production.

Benefits of different types of inspection services as  below:

Inspection before shipment

When the production of the order is 80% complete, the inspector will go to the factory to inspect and use the industry standard process to comprehensively inspect and test your product, including process, packaging, steamed bread, etc., to ensure that it meets the agreed specifications and industry standards. . Having a professional and qualified inspection service can better ensure that the product meets the customer’s specifications and ensure that the goods will not cause errors and cause risks.

Inspection during production

This service is very suitable for the strict requirements of large-scale shipments, continuous production lines, and fashion shipments. If bad results are found during pre-production inspections, then the production batches are checked and the products on the production lines are checked for possible defects. , Usually when 10-15% of the product is complete. In-production inspections can determine if there are any deviations, make recommendations for corrective actions, and re-examine any defects during the prenatal inspection to confirm that they have been corrected. Why do customers need to check during production? Finding defects early and taking action early can save customers time and money!

Pre-production inspection

After you have selected a supplier, you must complete the pre-production inspection before mass production begins. The main purpose of the pre-production inspection is to check whether your supplier understands your requirements and the specifications of your order, and prepares for it.

The main content of pre-production inspection:

Check the preparation of production materials
Check whether the factory understands your order requirements
Check factory production schedule
Check the production line of the factory

Loading supervision and inspection

Some inspection processes performed during all loading operations, including the packaging process performed at the manufacturer’s plant or warehouse, the packing process before shipment, checking whether the goods meet all requirements, checking the appearance of the package, the number and size of the boxes Meet contract standards and transportation standards, check the protection of transportation, and also check the cleanliness of transportation, such as cargo holds, railway wagons, ship decks, and more.

2. Why do we need factory audit services?

Factory audit services can help you ensure that your potential existing suppliers provide high-quality products, operate efficiently and support continuous improvement.

Factory audit services

In today’s highly competitive consumer market, buyers need a supplier base to work with them to meet all aspects of production, from design and quality to product life cycle time and delivery requirements. However, how do you effectively select new partners? How do you monitor the progress of existing suppliers? How do you effectively work with suppliers to maintain a focus on quality and time?

The factory evaluation audits the factory’s production capacity and performance to prove that the factory is capable of producing products that meet quality. The key criteria for the evaluation are policies, procedures, and records that demonstrate the factory’s ability to provide consistent quality management over time At a specific time or only for certain products.

The core areas and processes of factory assessment design include:
Quality management system
Good production practice
Factory environmental standards
Product control
Process control

3.Why does your supply chain in China and Asia need QC inspection?

Find quality issues early so you don’t have to deal with defects after the product has landed.

Performing quality checks at all stages-not just pre-shipment checks-will help companies monitor their products and processes and make important decisions to improve their current systems.

Reduce your return rate and risk of product failure. Handling customer complaints takes up a lot of company resources. It’s also tedious for employees.

Keep suppliers alert-get better quality products. In a way, it’s a way to collect data to increase efficiency. Being able to spot problems and weaknesses will enable them to correct these errors and respond accordingly.

The speed of your supply chain. Effective quality control before shipping will help reduce marketing costs. It will help you shorten lead times and facilitate timely delivery of products to recipients.

Keywords: stability and transformation of China’s foreign trade

Foreign trade is an important indicator of a country’s economic development. “Despite the complex and severe external environment and the series of challenges facing the steady growth of China’s foreign trade, the long-term sound fundamentals of China’s foreign trade remain unchanged. The trend of optimizing the structure of China’s foreign trade and accelerating the transformation of its driving forces remains unchanged.” Li kuiwen, spokesman of the general administration of customs and director of the statistical analysis department, commented on the foreign trade data in the first half of the year. According to customs statistics, China’s foreign trade totaled 14.67 trillion yuan in the first half of the year, up 3.9 percent year on year. Of this, exports were 7.95 trillion yuan, up 6.1%, imports were 6.72 trillion yuan, up 1.4%, and the trade surplus was 1.23 trillion yuan, up 41.6%. According to the national bureau of statistics, both imports and exports rose to their highest monthly levels this year in July, with both growing at a faster pace than the previous month. Overall, China’s foreign trade has shown strong resilience.

“Stability” — a hard-won report card

Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China 70 years ago, China’s foreign trade has grown from scratch and from strength to strength, contributing more and more to world economic growth and becoming an important engine driving world trade growth.

However, the development of China’s foreign trade has not been smooth. Under the current international situation, the external environment for China’s foreign trade development is complex and severe, and the steady growth of China’s foreign trade faces a series of challenges. The international monetary fund recently slashed its forecast for global trade growth this year by 0.9 percentage points to 2.5 per cent, down from 3.7 per cent last year and a three-year low. Relevant experts pointed out that in this context, China’s foreign trade achievements, to achieve steady growth, hard-won, fully demonstrates the strong resilience of China’s foreign trade.

Not long ago, the executive meeting of the state council decided on measures to further stabilize foreign trade. We will give better play to the role of export credit insurance, expand its coverage, reasonably reduce premiums, study and propose special types of insurance that meet the needs of enterprises, guide financial institutions to increase support for foreign trade financing for small and medium-sized enterprises, and create conditions to make RMB settlement more convenient. We will accelerate the development of cross-border e-commerce, processing trade, bonded maintenance and other new business forms, and foster import trade demonstration zones. Greater breakthroughs have been made in simplifying regulatory documents for import and export, reducing customs clearance time, and lowering port charges to improve trade facilitation.

The head of the foreign trade department of the ministry of commerce said that since the beginning of this year, the ministry of commerce, together with other relevant regions and departments, has introduced a series of policies and measures to create a law-based, internationalized and business-friendly environment and continuously improve trade facilitation.

According to the general administration of customs, the customs is promoting the stability of foreign trade from five aspects to improve the quality: first, strive to simplify the import and export supervision documents, reduce customs clearance time, reduce port charges to achieve greater breakthroughs; Second, we will release statistical data on cross-border e-commerce and protect intellectual property rights and the rights and interests of businesses and consumers in accordance with the law. Third, we will do a good job in institutional innovation, replication and promotion of pilot free trade zones, and turn comprehensive bonded areas into new heights for comprehensively deepening reform and opening up in the new era. Fourth, we will vigorously diversify our export markets, speed up the integration of the “single window” with the focus on “One Belt And One Road” countries, and further support and promote the development of eu-china freight trains. Fifth, we strengthened research on tax administration, and strictly implemented policies for tax reduction and preferential tax treatment.

The reporter learned that in recent years, the national trade promotion system has done a lot of work in serving the development of enterprises, and has made positive progress in building a platform for economic and trade promotion, strengthening commercial legal services, organizing special business training, and releasing economic and trade information. Since the beginning of this year, ccpit has promoted the national policies and measures to promote the development of smes, helped enterprises to expand diversified markets, and provided relevant supporting services for smes, so as to help smes go global at a higher level and with higher quality.

“China’s foreign trade has a large volume, strong resilience and strong momentum. It relies on the integrity of the domestic industrial chain, the huge domestic market, the diversification of the international market, the sufficient internal driving force of the main body and the continuous optimization of the structure.” Zhu yong, deputy director-general of the department of foreign trade of the ministry of commerce, expressed the belief that through joint efforts, we can achieve stability and improve the quality of foreign trade this year.

“Turn” — conform to the development trend of foreign trade

Scale effect has opened up a day for the development of China’s foreign trade, but improving the quality of the next stage is the key to becoming a trading power. In the first seven months of this year, exports of mechanical and electrical goods, for example, grew by 6.1%, 0.8 percentage points faster than in the first six months of this year. Among them, exports of high technology, high quality and high value-added products such as integrated circuits, metal processing machines, excavators and medical equipment maintained double-digit growth. Meanwhile, imports of quality consumer goods grew rapidly.

Gao shiwang, director of the industry development department of the China chamber of commerce for import and export of mechanical and electrical products, said in an interview with the media: on the one hand, China has a strong industrial foundation and a long industrial chain of mechanical and electrical products, and the industry competitiveness and capacity advantages built by it are still leading in the world. On the other hand, China’s foreign trade policy is stable, the level of trade facilitation continues to improve, and foreign trade enterprises continue to improve their integration into the global market and their ability to cope with external risks. All this will help Chinese companies consolidate their existing markets and expand new ones by diversifying their markets, increasing the added value of their products and providing value-added services.

In recent years, while optimizing the mix of export commodities, China’s foreign trade has been actively expanding imports to promote the balanced development of international trade and serve the high-quality economic development. “China’s imports of quality consumer goods from abroad are increasing as the Chinese market upgrades.” Hori, chairman of Turkey aled trading co., LTD., told this reporter that this trend has not only brought business opportunities for foreign enterprises, but also created opportunities for Chinese enterprises to expand foreign partners.

In the face of rising trade protectionism in relevant countries, Chinese enterprises have been actively exploring new markets and cultivating new trading partners in emerging markets and along the “One Belt And One Road”. According to the data released by the general administration of customs, the foreign trade growth rate of China and “One Belt And One Road” and other emerging markets is higher than the overall growth rate of China’s foreign trade in recent years, and the foreign trade growth rate of China and asean, Africa, central Asia, Latin America and other emerging markets is obvious. In the first half of the year, China’s imports and exports to countries along the belt and road rose 9.7 percent, 5.8 percentage points higher than the overall growth rate of foreign trade. Over the same period, China’s imports and exports to emerging markets such as Latin America and Africa grew 7.4 percent and 9 percent respectively, 3.5 and 5.1 percentage points higher than the overall growth rates.

Officials from the ministry of commerce said that since the beginning of this year, various departments and local governments have stepped up policy support and actively fostered new forms and models of trade. In the next step, the processing trade bonded maintenance project will continue to be implemented to further attract the processing, manufacturing and production service links with higher technical level and greater value-added content to China.

China’s exhibition after wind and rain achievements

After entering the 21st century, China’s convention and exhibition industry ushered in many grand events, greatly exciting people.

On February 26, 2001, the inaugural conference of the boao forum for Asia was held in boao, hainan. This is the first international forum headquartered in China since the reform and opening up. The boao forum for Asia has become an international forum and institution on a par with the world economic forum in davos. General secretary xi jinping said that based on Asia and facing the world, the boao forum for Asia has played an important role in building consensus, promoting cooperation and building a community of Shared future in Asia.

In November 2001, China completed the negotiations on joining the wto. In the second year, in the national standard of classification of industries of national economy (GB/T 4754-2002), China established the small category of “conference and exhibition service industry” (code L7491) for the first time. (since October 1, 2017, “conference, exhibition and related services” has been upgraded from “small class” to “middle class”, with the industry code of L728.)

On May 14, 2017, the first “One Belt And One Road” international cooperation summit forum was held in Beijing. President xi jinping presided over many important events and delivered keynote speeches. The forum includes the opening ceremony, the round table summit and the high-level meeting. The list of outcomes includes policy communication, infrastructure connectivity, unimpeded trade, financial integration and people-to-people connectivity, 76 items and more than 270 items.

As one of China’s main diplomatic events, the forum has played a significant role in promoting the “One Belt And One Road” initiative and building a community with a Shared future for mankind. It is also a way for China to provide public services for world development through international conferences, demonstrating China’s important role as a responsible major country. On April 26, 2019, the second “One Belt And One Road” summit forum for international cooperation was held in Beijing, with more fruitful results.

The first China international import expo was held at the national convention and exhibition center (Shanghai) on November 5, 2018. This is a large-scale exhibition project personally planned, proposed and promoted by President xi jinping. It has been a great success with far-reaching impact.

“Magnificent 70 years, forge ahead in a new era”. How to summarize the development achievements and great progress of China’s exhibition industry in the past 70 years? Xi jinping, general secretary of September 20, 2016 for the g20 summit in hangzhou summary commendation work made important instructions: hangzhou summit the implementation of the “west lake scenery, jiangnan style, Chinese style, datong world” concept, to show the world the Chinese spirit, Chinese power, in the process of the group of 20 left a deep mark in China. On the occasion of celebrating the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, we feel very excited and proud to review the instructions of general secretary xi jinping. The great rejuvenation of China reflected by the development achievements of China’s convention and exhibition industry over the past 70 years is already on the paper.

China-vietnam (cross-border) e-commerce cooperation enters “window period”

In recent years, Vietnam has become the “rising star” of e-commerce profit growth in southeast Asia. According to the Vietnam e-commerce report 2019 released by the Vietnam e-commerce Association, the growth rate of e-commerce platform revenue in Vietnam surged 30 percent to about $8 billion in 2018, higher than in Thailand and Malaysia. In 2019, the penetration rate of e-commerce users in Vietnam was 56.7%, and is expected to reach 64.4% in 2023. The e-commerce market grew from $4 billion in transactions in 2015 to $7.8 billion in 2018. In 2018, Vietnam’s per capita e-commerce spending was $65, up 29 percent from 2017 and ranking third in the world. Vietnam’s two largest cities, Hanoi and ho chi minh city, have 154,221 and 159,379 websites with.vn domains, respectively, accounting for 70 percent of the country’s total e-commerce transactions. Vietnam currently has five of the top 10 e-commerce platforms in southeast Asia: Lazada, Shopee, Tiki, Thegioididong and Sendo. Shopee ranked first in Vietnam, accounting for 16.8 percent of total monthly web traffic, and first in mobile app usage, followed by Tiki, Lazada, Sendo and Thegioididong. Lazada VN is still far ahead of its rivals in social media marketing on YouTube, Instagram and Facebook. Vietnam’s e-commerce market cannot flourish without a massive infusion of capital from global technology giants. Alibaba and jd.com, two Chinese e-commerce giants, are also vying for the Vietnamese market. In August 2019, jd.com became the largest investor in Tiki, a company best known for TikiNow’s two-hour delivery service. In December of the same year, ant financial, a fintech company under alibaba group, quietly bought a stake in eMoney, a leading electronic payment company in Vietnam, aiming to consolidate its strategic position in the e-commerce market in southeast Asia.

In the next few years, china-vietnam e-commerce cooperation will usher in a development window. The main reasons are as follows: first, under the background of profound changes in the global industrial chain, the ongoing trade game between China and the us, and China’s initiative to accelerate industrial restructuring, the trend of some enterprises that used to produce or assemble us-related goods in China will not change in the near future. Vietnam and geographic borders with China, land, sea and is linked together, innovation has long maintained a stable domestic political and economic environment, the domestic many people form the low cost of labor and ample consumer market, on the brink of international ocean shipping routes and in southeast Asia’s geographical center, is China’s enterprises, export outsourcing of ideal transit center. The transatlantic free trade agreement, which is expected to be ratified and implemented in the first half of 2020, is a boost to Vietnam’s export activity, an opportunity for Chinese exporters to use e-commerce to trade with Vietnam. Second, Vietnam has a number of advantages in the e-commerce market. Vietnam’s rapid economic growth is driving rising per capita income. Vietnam’s GDP per capita reached us $2,740 in 2019 and is expected to grow by 52% (us $3,952) by 2024. The middle class has risen sharply, with some 26 per cent of the population estimated to be in the global middle-income bracket, spending at least $15 a day online by 2026. Vietnam has about 100 million people, a quarter of whom are under the age of 25. In response, the number of Internet users in Vietnam has grown rapidly. As of 2019, Vietnam had 59 million Internet users, more than half the population, making it the second largest country in southeast Asia. By 2023, the figure is estimated to be 76 million. The number of Internet consumers in Vietnam is expected to increase from 23 million in 2017 to 40 million in 2025 as the economy continues to grow and infrastructure continues to improve. In addition, Vietnam improve consumer confidence and the change of consumption idea, Vietnam, the average conversion rate 30% higher than the average level of the association of south-east Asian nations (asean), online shopping pattern promotes gradually, the mobile adoption and Internet penetration increasing, Vietnamese consumers more and more tend to use a mobile phone purse, of which 47% of Internet users per month has been using mobile payment services, more than the global average. It provides a huge potential market for china-vietnam e-commerce cooperation. Third, e-commerce cooperation between China and Vietnam started late but developed rapidly.

China-vietnam (cross-border) e-commerce cooperation enters "window period"

The e-commerce cooperation between China and Vietnam already has multiple purchase and sales modes, such as mail purchase, “mutual market trade + e-commerce”, overseas warehousing, and international mail order. Since the signing of the cooperation document in the field of e-commerce in May 2017, the two governments have established an e-commerce working group to carry out practical cooperation on policy communication and government-enterprise coordination. In September 2019, at the “silk road e-commerce” government-enterprise dialogue, officials from the functional departments of the two governments and representatives of e-commerce enterprises had in-depth exchanges on how to promote e-commerce cooperation, strengthen regional cooperation, enhance mutual understanding and further improve the quality and level of cross-border e-commerce cooperation. Local governments are also actively strengthening e-commerce cooperation with Vietnam. For example, guangxi has opened the china-europe express nanning – Hanoi trans-border container express train, and established a logistics corridor. The customs and quarantine department of fangchenggang port has realized the customs clearance mode of “one declaration, one inspection and one release”, and pingxiang port has taken the lead in realizing full informationized and intelligent customs clearance in China. In terms of cross-border payments, local governments have started individual exchange franchises. Fourth, the Vietnamese government recognizes that the shift from traditional business practices to a digital economy is increasingly an effective way to help companies develop and expand export markets. To this end, Vietnam’s ministry of industry and trade has issued the “2016-2020 e-commerce development master plan”, which emphasizes the form of international cooperation to support Vietnamese enterprises through e-commerce to promote exports and develop Vietnam’s e-commerce brand.

The second is to enhance the intellectual support for e-commerce cooperation between China and Vietnam. It is suggested that a joint expert group on e-commerce cooperation between China and Vietnam should be established under the framework of memorandum of cooperation documents on e-commerce between China and Vietnam. Carry out studies on the feasibility of bilateral e-commerce cooperation, plan development routes, accelerate the implementation of action plans in specific areas of bilateral e-commerce cooperation, and strengthen policy guidance in specific areas; We will establish china-vietnam e-commerce cooperation forum and think tank platform. In the new era, under the background of consolidating the existing cooperation mechanism, it is necessary to expand the content and innovate cooperation mechanism of e-commerce between China and Vietnam. For example, various professional forums should be held regularly to provide a richer exchange platform for bilateral e-commerce cooperation. Hold china-vietnam think tank summits on e-commerce cooperation on a regular basis, discuss the development trend, opportunities, challenges and other major issues of e-commerce cooperation, formulate feasible Suggestions and gradually form an important driving force for china-vietnam e-commerce cooperation. We will increase efforts to cultivate talents of cross-border e-commerce merchants in China and Vietnam. It mainly trains professional, managerial and practical talents. From the perspective of professional talents, with the increasingly rich content of e-commerce cooperation between China and Vietnam, the requirements for the quality of relevant talents also increase. On the basis of focusing on the reality, china-vietnam e-commerce cooperation should also be based on the long term. It is necessary to dig deeply and cultivate academic talents who are interested in studying the basic research of china-vietnam e-commerce cooperation. From the perspective of managerial talents, it is necessary to cultivate high-quality front-line management talents so that they can stay and better serve enterprises engaged in cross-border e-commerce cooperation between China and Vietnam. From the perspective of practical talents, universities of the two countries can combine the characteristics of bilateral trade to set up courses on cross-border e-commerce cooperation and communication, etiquette, theoretical knowledge and practice, and regularly organize e-commerce students from China and Vietnam to practice in Chinese and Vietnamese companies to improve their practical capabilities. At the same time, it is necessary to organize large e-commerce enterprises to provide training services for e-commerce merchants of the two countries and train some e-commerce technical backbone so that they can master relevant technologies and better serve cross-border e-commerce cooperative enterprises.

Third, in the cooperation between Chinese e-commerce enterprises and Vietnamese e-commerce enterprises, they should conduct in-depth research on the current situation, characteristics and trends of the e-commerce market in Vietnam, integrate their own resources, and put forward appropriate cooperation plans. For example, most e-commerce enterprises in Vietnam do not invest enough capital in researching customer needs, and the quality and design of domestic products are not as good as those in other countries/regions. Most of Vietnam’s population remains dispersed in remote and dispersed rural areas, increasing the difficulty of quick delivery and the logistics costs that affect online shopping. Most Vietnam local electricity enterprises lack of skilled Labour for online transactions and related technologies, the warehouse is out of date and operation technology – only a third of Vietnam’s domestic e-commerce enterprises have can be integrated with the online platform of modern warehouse management system, raising the cost of inventory and warehouse management, in many companies, these costs account for more than 20% of total revenue. Therefore, Chinese e-commerce enterprises should increase financing and related technical support in these areas.

Product quality standard inspection classification

Product quality standard inspection classification

Product quality inspection report shows different characteristics, and the evaluation of these characteristics will be different due to different standards of people’s grasp. In order to avoid the influence of subjective factors, in the production, inspection and evaluation of product quality, there needs to be a basic basis and a unified standard, which is the product quality standard.

Firstly, according to the order of the production process

1. Incoming inspection

Incoming inspection is the inspection of raw materials, outsourced parts, outsourced parts, supporting parts, auxiliary materials, supporting products and semi-finished products purchased by the enterprise before entering the warehouse.

The purpose of purchase inspection is to prevent non-conforming products from entering the warehouse, prevent the use of non-conforming products, affect the product quality, affect the reputation of the enterprise or disrupt the normal production order. This is crucial to keeping the quality high and reducing unnecessary economic losses for the company.

Income inspection shall be conducted by a full-time inspector of the enterprise in strict accordance with technical documents.

Incoming inspection includes two kinds of sample inspection and batch inspection.

2. Process inspection

Process inspection, also known as process inspection, is an inspection performed between various processing steps in the product formation process.

The purpose is to ensure that the unqualified semi-finished products in each process cannot flow into the next process, to prevent the continued processing of unqualified semi-finished products and the batch of semi-finished products to be unqualified, and to ensure the normal production order. Because the process inspection is carried out according to the production process and operating procedures, it plays a role in verifying the process and ensuring that the process procedures are carried out.

Process inspection usually has three main forms: first article inspection; roving inspection; completion inspection.

3. Final inspection

Final inspection is also called finished product inspection, the purpose is to ensure that non-conforming products are not delivered.

Finished product inspection is a comprehensive inspection of the product after production and before it is put into storage.

The inspection of finished products is the responsibility of the enterprise quality inspection agency. Inspection should be carried out in accordance with the instructions of the inspection guide for finished products. Inspection of large quantities of finished products is generally carried out by statistical sampling inspection.

For products that pass the inspection of finished products, the shop should not go through the warehouse formalities until the inspector has issued a certificate of compliance. All the unqualified finished products should be returned to the workshop for rework, repair, downgrade or scrap treatment. The reworked and reworked products must be inspected again for the entire project. The inspector must make a record of the reworked and reworked products to ensure that the product quality is traceable.

Secondly, classification by inspection location

1. Centralized inspection

Centralize the products to be inspected in a fixed place, such as an inspection station. Generally, the final inspection adopts the method of centralized inspection.

2. On-site inspection

On-site inspection is also called on-site inspection, which refers to inspection at the production site or product storage place. General process inspection or final inspection of large products uses on-site inspection.

3. Flow inspection (roving inspection)

Inspectors shall conduct roving quality inspections of manufacturing processes at the production site. The inspectors shall conduct inspections in accordance with the inspection frequency and quantity specified in the inspection instructions and make a record.

The process quality control point should be the focus of the roving inspection. The inspector shall mark the inspection results on the process control chart.

When the inspection process finds that there is a problem in the quality of the process, on the one hand, it is necessary to work with the operator to find out the cause of the abnormal process, take effective corrective measures, and restore the process control state; All processed workpieces before inspection are re-inspected or screened to prevent substandard products from flowing into the next process or the user.

Thirdly, classification by inspection method

1. Physical and Chemical Inspection

Physical and chemical inspection refers to the method that mainly relies on measuring instruments, instruments, meters, measuring devices or chemical methods to inspect products and obtain inspection results. Where possible, use physical and chemical tests.

2. Sensory test

Sensory test is also called sensory test, which is based on human sensory organs to evaluate or judge the quality of the product. For example, the shape, color, odor, scars, and aging of products are usually tested by human visual, auditory, tactile, or olfactory sensory organs, and the quality of the product is judged as good or bad.

Sensory tests can be divided into:

Hobby sensory tests, such as wine tasting, tea tasting, and product appearance and style identification. Only by the rich practical experience of inspectors can correct and effective judgments be made.

Analytical sensory inspections, such as train inspections and equipment inspections, rely on the feelings of hands, eyes, and ears to judge temperature, speed, and noise.

3. Experimental use identification

Experimental use identification refers to the inspection of the actual use effect of the product. Through the actual use or trial of the product, observe the applicability of the product’s use characteristics.

Fourthly, according to the number of products tested

1. Full inspection

Full inspection is also called 100% inspection, which is to inspect all the submitted products one by one according to the prescribed standards.

It should be noted that even the full test cannot guarantee 100% of the grid due to wrong and missed tests. If the desired product is 100% qualified, you must repeat the full inspection several times to get close to the 100% Lily.

2. Sampling inspection

Sampling inspection is based on a predetermined sampling plan, and a specified number of samples are taken from the inspection batch to form a sample. The inspection of the sample can be used to infer that the batch is qualified or unqualified.

3. Exempt

Exemption from inspection is also called no-test inspection, which is mainly the non-test inspection performed on products purchased by the national authority’s product quality certification or trustworthy products at the time of purchase. The acceptance or failure can be based on the supplier’s certificate or inspection data.

When implementing inspection exemption, customers often have to supervise the production process of the supplier. Supervision can be carried out by sending personnel to station or requesting control charts of the production process.

Fifthly, classification by the nature of the data of the quality characteristics

1. Inspection of measurement value

Measurement value inspection needs to measure and record the specific values of the quality characteristics, obtain the measurement value data, and compare the data value with the standard to determine whether the product is qualified.

The quality data obtained from the measurement value inspection can be analyzed by statistical methods such as histograms and control charts, and more quality information can be obtained.

2. Count value test

In order to improve production efficiency in industrial production, limit gauges (such as plug gauges, card gauges, etc.) are often used for inspection. The obtained quality data is count value data such as the number of qualified products and the number of unqualified products, but cannot obtain specific values of quality characteristics.

Sixthly, classification according to the condition of the samples after inspection

1. Destructive inspection

Destructive inspection means that the inspection results (such as the blasting ability of the shell, the strength of the metal material, etc.) can only be obtained after the sample being inspected is destroyed. After the destructive test, the tested sample has completely lost its original use value, so the sample size is small, and the risk of testing is large.

2. Non-destructive inspection

Non-destructive inspection refers to inspection in which the product is not damaged during the inspection process, and the product quality does not change substantially. Most inspections, such as part size measurements, are non-destructive. Due to the development of non-destructive testing technology, the scope of non-destructive testing is gradually expanding.

Seventhly, classification by inspection purpose

1. Production inspection

Production inspection refers to the inspections carried out by production enterprises at various stages in the entire production process of product formation, with the purpose of ensuring the quality of products produced by production enterprises.

Internal control standards for production inspection.

2. Acceptance inspection

Acceptance inspection is the inspection performed by the customer (requirer) on the acceptance of the product provided by the production enterprise (supplier). The purpose of acceptance inspection is to ensure the quality of the accepted product.

Acceptance inspection carries out acceptance criteria.

3. Supervision inspection

Supervision and inspection refers to the market random inspection and supervision conducted by the independent inspection agencies authorized by the competent government departments at all levels in accordance with the plan formulated by the quality supervision and management department to extract commodities from the market or directly extract products from production enterprises. The purpose of supervision and inspection is to carry out macro-control over the quality of products put on the market.

4. Verification inspection

Verification inspection refers to an independent inspection agency authorized by the competent government department at all levels to take samples from the products produced by the enterprise and verify whether the products produced by the enterprise meet the requirements of the implemented quality standards. For example, the type test in product quality certification is a verification inspection.

5. Arbitration inspection

Arbitration inspection means that when the supplier and the buyer have a dispute over product quality, an independent inspection agency authorized by the competent government department at all levels will take samples for inspection and provide the arbitration agency as the technical basis for the award.

Eighthly, classification by supply and demand

1. First-party inspection

The producer (supplier) is called the first party. First-party inspection refers to the inspection of the products produced by the manufacturer itself. The first party inspection is actually the production inspection.

2. Second party inspection

The user (customer, buyer) is called the second party. The purchaser’s inspection of purchased products or raw materials, purchased parts, outsourced parts, and ancillary products is called second-party inspection. The second party inspection is actually the purchase inspection (buy inspection) and acceptance inspection.

3. Third party inspection

The independent inspection agencies authorized by the competent government departments at all levels are called impartial third parties. Third party inspections include supervision inspections, verification inspections, arbitration inspections, etc.

Ninethly, classification by inspection personnel

1. Self-test

Self-inspection refers to the inspection of the products or parts processed by the operator himself. The purpose of the self-inspection is to understand the quality status of the processed product or component through inspection, so as to continuously adjust the production process to produce a product or component that fully meets the quality requirements.

2. Mutual inspection

Mutual inspection is the mutual inspection of the processed products by the operators of the same job or the next process. The purpose of mutual inspection is to find quality problems that do not comply with the technical regulations in time through inspection, so that corrective measures can be taken in time to ensure the quality of processed products.

3. Special Inspection

Special inspection refers to the inspection conducted by personnel directly under the leadership of the quality inspection agency of an enterprise who are engaged in quality inspection.

Tenthly, classification by inspection system components

1. Batch inspection

Batch-by-batch inspection refers to the inspection of each batch of products produced in the production process. The purpose of batch-by-batch inspection is to determine the conformity of the batch of products.

2. Periodic inspection

Period refers to time. Periodic inspection is an inspection performed at a certain interval (quarterly or monthly) from a batch or batches that pass the batch-by-batch inspection. The purpose of cycle inspection is to determine whether the production process is stable during the cycle.

Periodic inspection and batch-by-batch inspection constitute the complete inspection system of the enterprise. Periodic inspection is an inspection to determine the role of system factors in the production process, while batch inspection is an inspection to determine the role of random factors. The two are a complete inspection system for commissioning and maintaining production. Periodic inspection is the premise of batch-by-batch inspection. There is no batch-by-batch inspection for production systems that do not have periodic inspection or fail in periodic inspection. Batch-by-batch inspection is a supplement to periodic inspection. Batch-by-batch inspection is a test that controls the effects of random factors on the basis of eliminating the effects of system factors through periodic inspection.

In general, batch-to-batch inspection only inspects the key quality characteristics of the product. The periodic inspection should check the entire quality characteristics of the product and the impact of the environment (temperature, humidity, time, air pressure, external force, load, radiation, mildew, moth, etc.) on the quality characteristics, including accelerated aging and life testing. Therefore, the equipment required for the periodic inspection is complicated, the cycle is long, and the cost is high, but the periodic inspection must not be performed because of this. When an enterprise does not have the conditions to conduct periodic inspections, it may entrust inspection institutions at all levels to perform periodic inspections on its behalf.

Eleventhly, according to the effect of inspection

1. Critical test

Judgment inspection is based on the quality standards of the product, and the conformity judgment of the product is determined by inspection. The main function of the judgment test is to check, and its prevention function is very weak.

2. Informational Inspection

Informative inspection is a modern inspection method that uses the information obtained by inspection for quality control. Because informative inspection is both inspection and quality control, it has a strong preventive function.

3. Causality test

The cause-finding inspection is to find out the possible causes of non-conformity (cause-seeking) through sufficient prediction during the design stage of the product, and to design and manufacture error-proof devices in a targeted manner for the product manufacturing process to prevent non-conformities The production of goods. Therefore, causal tests have a strong preventive function.

Products Safety Test- ground resistance test

Products Safety Test- ground resistance test

Many injuries caused by electric shock are caused by poor insulation of electronic products or failure of the product’s ground safety system. For example, a person using an ungrounded power drill while standing on a wet garage floor, or a housewife touching an ungrounded washing machine while using a washing machine. If these electrical products are not well insulated, they may Acts as a path to ground, so they are in danger of being accidentally shocked. As the manufacturer of products designed for consumers or industrial use states: “We cannot stop consumers who buy products from using ungrounded systems. We can only warn them that it is dangerous to do so. However, we must prevent products with electrical leakage from leaving the factory . ”

Products Safety Test- ground resistance test

Necessity and safety of insulation testing

In order to protect consumers, manufacturers need to complete several types of safety tests to ensure that products comply with industry standards regarding product structure, performance, and process specifications. But for all the applied electrical products, there is only one kind of test for electrical strength, or withstand voltage test, which must be done. For insulation testing, the test manufacturers have another reason. Not only do they have to prevent substandard components from being installed in the product, but they must also find the process defects in the production line in time before the parts are installed. To ensure the quality of production, many manufacturers will actively test their production processes to comply with ISO requirements, not only to increase production capacity, but also to do a good job of quality control to achieve both quality and quantity. There are also some manufacturers that will The purpose of regulatory testing is to protect themselves from product liability. However, whether it is positive or negative, there is only one purpose, that is, the safety of the user is always the most important.

Recommendations for test stations

The test station should choose a place that does not disturb employees’ routine work activities. This place must be clearly marked. At the same time, anyone who has nothing to do with the test should keep at least 3-8 feet away from the exposed live parts, and then protect it. The protective fence or insulating protective material is made into a protective object to protect each employee from electric shock, burns, or other related injuries when working on exposed high voltage parts that may be accidentally touched. The test area is marked with a clear ball, which says: Dangerous high voltage test area, please do not enter.
Establish a test station. In addition to warning lights, a switch should be installed to turn off all power. The location of the switch should be near the test area and clearly labelled. When an employee encounters an emergency, aid personnel must turn off the power before entering the test area.

Only use non-conductive workbenches or dedicated workbenches for testing. Remove any metal objects between the tester and the product under test. All other metal objects not in contact with the DUT are grounded. Don’t suspend them. If you are testing a small product, a non-conductive material, such as transparent plexiglass, should be used to form a protective cover or surround the test area. To install a linkage switch, it will not work if the switch is not in the proper position. Use an insulated safety pad on the ground in the test area to isolate the operator from the ground.

If the instrument can be operated by a remote switch, consider the simultaneous control of two switches (accessible and remote). If the two switches are far apart, a separate (unrestricted) backup switch should be used. Do not connect anything to the instrument. Make high voltage independent power supply. In other words, unless testing is fully automated, all operations should be performed under the supervision of a tester.

The withstand voltage tester must be well grounded. The power cables must be reasonably distributed when connected to the test bench, and have a low resistance to ground at the appropriate location. Some use a detection circuit together to check the power and ground connections. The warning light will be on when there is wrong wiring (such as the polarity of the wire is reversed or the ground wire is insufficient). If you see anything other than an OK signal, immediately turn off the instrument and unplug the instrument. Do not turn on the power again until the line is connected.

Keep the test area quiet and tidy. Let the test operator know exactly which products are being tested, which products are to be tested, and which products have been tested. Leave enough space on the workbench around the product being tested. The instrument should be placed in a more convenient location, and the tester does not need to turn on or debug the instrument over the instrument being tested.

Recommendations for training testers

Testers should understand the basics of voltage, resistance, and current. They should know the various voltages and currents that the instrument can provide through any valid ground. The important point is that the output voltage range is comparable to the correct voltage used by the product under test. Explain how much current the instrument can provide, and how much current rather than voltage can cause injury or even death.

Alerting the operator to any damage to the security system or allowing unauthorized persons to enter the test area is a serious violation of the test procedure. Remind the operator not to wear jewelry, especially bracelets and necklaces, as they may form a loop.

Some more modern instruments provide microcomputer control and password protection mode for the operator, which allows only the operator to operate. These features can be used when needed. Without a license, the operator cannot change test settings.

Recommendations for test procedures

Make sure that the high voltage is switched off before connecting.
First connect the circuit end of the instrument, then use a clip to connect to the exposed metal part for testing. If you use a clip to connect to the high-voltage side, hold the clip’s insulated handle with your hand and do not directly touch the clip. If a lot of sockets are placed on the panel of the instrument used, the loop-end clamp should be connected before the signal end of the product is connected to the tester. It should be absolutely clear which end of the product is the signal end. When using a test fixture (clamp), make sure it is completely turned off and all protective devices are turned on. The test fixture should interact with the power switch so that testing cannot begin when the connection is incorrect.

Check the connection repeatedly before testing, and leave enough clean space around the product under test.
Follow the high-voltage wire from the tester to the product and connect the wire directly to the test product on the workbench. Avoid crossing test leads. The extra wires between the tester and the product should be neatly rolled into a roll. Formulate standard test procedures in detail, and medicines always follow this procedure during the test. Check all settings of the instrument before the test starts. Prior to testing, periodic inspection of aged insulated wires or other related wires should be performed.

(1) Do not touch any cables, connectors or products during the test.
(2) Hold a “hot rod” in your hand when doing the DC test. (A “hot rod” is a two-foot-long insulating rod with a probe connected to the ground at one end.) If a connector is lost during testing, use a “hot rod” to discharge any surface connected to the instrument’s live wire. It is not enough to turn off the power.
(3) If a connector is lost during the test, immediately switch off the high voltage. If you are doing a DC test, use a “hot rod” to discharge the product, then rewire and test.
(4) After the test is completed, turn off the high voltage power. DC test products discharge after being left for a while, AC test products do not need to be discharged.

Why electronic products need high temperature aging test

Why electronic products need high temperature aging

Main functions: In order to achieve a satisfactory pass rate, almost all products must be aged before leaving the factory. How can manufacturers increase their efficiency without reducing aging time? This article introduces a new approach to functional testing during the aging process to reduce and shorten the cost and time issues associated with the aging process.

In the semiconductor industry, there have been various debates about the aging of devices. Like other products, semiconductors may fail at any time due to various reasons. Aging is to allow defects to appear in a short period of time by overloading the semiconductor to avoid failures early in use. Without aging, many semiconductor products will cause many problems in use due to the complexity of devices and manufacturing processes.

Defects that appear within hours to days after use (depending on the maturity of the manufacturing process and the overall structure of the device) are called early failures. After aging, the device basically requires 100% elimination of failures caused by this time.. The only way to accurately determine the aging time is to refer to previously collected aging failures and failure analysis statistics, and most manufacturers want to reduce or eliminate aging.
The aging process must ensure that the factory’s products meet user requirements for reliability. In addition, it must be able to provide engineering data to improve device performance.

Generally speaking, the aging process uses rigorous tests on semiconductor devices in both the working environment and electrical performance to make faults appear early. Major faults occur at the beginning and the last tenth of the device’s life cycle. Aging is to speed up the operation of the device in the first 10% of its life, forcing early failures to occur in a shorter time, usually hours rather than months or years.

Why electronic products need high temperature aging

Not all semiconductors are classified according to the customer’s product needs:

For example: for drug storage, the name may be called a constant temperature room. For electronic products, automobile meters, energy meters, LCD monitors, industrial meters, mobile phones, etc., the name of the power-on aging screening may be called high-temperature aging room or high-temperature aging screening room. Do inverters, electronic equipment, computer hosts, refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, printers, water dispensers, tires, etc. The name may be called high temperature aging test room or aging room.

The outer frame structure of this equipment is composed of double-sided color steel thermal insulation board. The size is customized according to customer requirements and configured according to different requirements. The aging room is mainly composed of a cabinet, a control system, a wind circulation system, a heating system, a time control system, and a test load. Through the aging test, defective products or defective parts can be detected, which provides effective means for customers to quickly find and solve problems, which fully improves customer production efficiency and product quality.

As the performance and environment of the aging room must ensure the required temperature, power quality, load capacity, working hours, and the safety and habits of the operator, a set of qualified aging equipment should be a safe, reliable, and efficient Energy-efficient, fully functional and scalable equipment.

British traders continue to be bullish on the Chinese market

Colin rainsforth, manager of UK trader absolute advantage, said in an interview that the outbreak would not affect his company’s future business in China, xinhua reported.

‘China is a huge market of 1.4 billion people, with a rapidly growing middle class, and there is a huge demand for high-quality goods,’ Mr. Rainsforth said of the bullish case for China. Some world-renowned British brands of chocolate, ice cream and wine are favored by Chinese consumers. “I think there will be a lot more demand coming from China than from Europe and the us.”

Speaking about the potential impact of the current outbreak on the company’s business, rainsforth said: ‘the impact is not obvious at the moment. The impact in the future may depend on two things. One is China’s economic fundamentals and consumer confidence.’ The other is whether the export of some food raw materials such as condiments will be affected. “In the short term, the outbreak will affect China’s economic growth, but the impact will be temporary. “In the long run, the fundamentals of the Chinese economy remain positive.”

Rainsforth said the Chinese government has taken timely steps to mitigate the economic impact of the outbreak, “which is not only good for the Chinese economy, but also good for the world economy. This is a time when the world should unite, not isolate China, which would be bad for trade.”

“Staff in the Shanghai office will work from home until the 21st of this month. The current outbreak has not materially affected our work. Although the customer visit activity has stopped, we have no products in China, so the impact is not big.” “Said the head of a us asset management agency’s head of markets. Asked if the outbreak would affect the company’s licence application process, the marketing executive said: “it’s not a big deal, it’s still on track. I haven’t submitted my application yet. I will do my homework first.”