This standard is intended to help facilitate the choice of surgical face masks in the European Market by standardizing the information and performance data required for the masks.
There are three test methods used to classify surgical masks:
1.Bacterial Filtration Efficiency in vitro (BFE) (ASTM F2101-07)
Test is used to determine the amount of infective agent that is retained by the surgical facemask, which is directly related to the amount of bacteria released through the mask into the air of the surgical theatre.
To test, a controlled flow of air containing an aerosol with a controlled concentration of Staphylococcus aureas is driven through a sample of the surgical mask containing all layers. The average size of the aerosol droplets is around 3.0 Micron. The number of bacteria that passes the sample is compared to the number that passes without the mask sample.
A higher BFE percentage indicates a better protection level for the patient against infective agents from the OR staff.
BFE => 95% TYPE I
BFE => 98% TYPE II
A different BFE test called the “Modified Green & Vesley” or BFE in vivo has been used frequently in the past. This test method always provides extremely high values, but does not really differentiate between different quality surgical facemasks. The BFE in vivo test method is therefore not part of the new EU standard.
2.Breathing Resistance (Delta P)
Test is used to determine the resistance airflow of the facemask.
To test, a controlled flow of air is driven through a sample of the surgical mask containing all layers. The pressure before and after the sample is measured; the difference in pressure is divided by the surface (in cm2) of the sample.
A lower breathing resistance indicates a better comfort level for the user. It means the mask feels cooler and easier to breath through, and that the mask will maintain its shape in a better way as there is less pressure on the material. There will be less unfiltered air escaping around the mask.
TYPE I & II (non splash resistant) = < 3.0 mmH2O/cm2
TYPE IR & IIR (splash resistant) = < 5.0 mmH2O/cm2
The breathing resistance is always measured per square centimeter of material. One way to increase comfort is to have a low breathing resistance value per cm2, the other to enlarge the surface of the facemask and thereby the total area available for ventilation.
3.Splash Resistance (ASTM F1862-07)
Test is used to determine the resistance penetration of potentially contaminated fluid splashes.
To test, a precisely determined quantity of specially prepared artificial blood is sprayed at a controlled pressure against a sample of the mask. Frequently these tests are done at pressures of 80, 120 and 160 mmHg. A visible inspection on the backside of the sample indicates if there is a fluid strike-through (red color) or not. The test is repeated 32 times at each pressure, and if three or less masks show a strike through, the product is considered splash resistant at that pressure.
A higher splash resistance means the mask will protect the user in a better way against splashes of potentially contaminated fluid during a surgical procedure.
TYPE I & TYPE II not applicable
TYPE IR & TYPE IIR minimum 120 mmHg
120 mmHg is a minimum value. It corresponds to the average systolic arterial blood pressure, and intends to protect against ruptures in small arteries causing small sprays of blood. Some products off protection even in excess of the 120 mmHg.
Minimum Performance Requirements According to the New Facemask Standard EN14683
Main functions: In order to achieve a satisfactory pass rate, almost all products must be aged before leaving the factory. How can manufacturers increase their efficiency without reducing aging time? This article introduces a new approach to functional testing during the aging process to reduce and shorten the cost and time issues associated with the aging process.
In the semiconductor industry, there have been various debates about the aging of devices. Like other products, semiconductors may fail at any time due to various reasons. Aging is to allow defects to appear in a short period of time by overloading the semiconductor to avoid failures early in use. Without aging, many semiconductor products will cause many problems in use due to the complexity of devices and manufacturing processes.
Defects that appear within hours to days after use (depending on the maturity of the manufacturing process and the overall structure of the device) are called early failures. After aging, the device basically requires 100% elimination of failures caused by this time.. The only way to accurately determine the aging time is to refer to previously collected aging failures and failure analysis statistics, and most manufacturers want to reduce or eliminate aging. The aging process must ensure that the factory’s products meet user requirements for reliability. In addition, it must be able to provide engineering data to improve device performance.
Generally speaking, the aging process uses rigorous tests on semiconductor devices in both the working environment and electrical performance to make faults appear early. Major faults occur at the beginning and the last tenth of the device’s life cycle. Aging is to speed up the operation of the device in the first 10% of its life, forcing early failures to occur in a shorter time, usually hours rather than months or years.
Not all semiconductors are classified according to the customer’s product needs:
For example: for drug storage, the name may be called a constant temperature room. For electronic products, automobile meters, energy meters, LCD monitors, industrial meters, mobile phones, etc., the name of the power-on aging screening may be called high-temperature aging room or high-temperature aging screening room. Do inverters, electronic equipment, computer hosts, refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, printers, water dispensers, tires, etc. The name may be called high temperature aging test room or aging room.
The outer frame structure of this equipment is composed of double-sided color steel thermal insulation board. The size is customized according to customer requirements and configured according to different requirements. The aging room is mainly composed of a cabinet, a control system, a wind circulation system, a heating system, a time control system, and a test load. Through the aging test, defective products or defective parts can be detected, which provides effective means for customers to quickly find and solve problems, which fully improves customer production efficiency and product quality.
As the performance and environment of the aging room must ensure the required temperature, power quality, load capacity, working hours, and the safety and habits of the operator, a set of qualified aging equipment should be a safe, reliable, and efficient Energy-efficient, fully functional and scalable equipment.
1. What are the functions of the purchasing department? The functions of the purchasing department include: (1) Grasp the required purchasing information in a timely manner and maintain good internal communication. (2) Investigate and master the supply channels of materials used in production, and find sources of material supply. (3) Establish a supplier profile and contact the supplier to prevent alternative suppliers from being found in an emergency. (4) Refer to the raw material market and ask the supplier to quote. (5) Evaluate the supplier’s supply price, material quality, delivery time, etc., understand the market price trend of the company’s main materials, produce procurement documents, and purchase the required materials. (6) Coordinate the delivery time of the supplier according to the purchase contract. (7) Assist the quality department to check the quantity and quality of incoming materials. (8) Assist the material control department to prevent and treat sluggish and waste materials.
2. What are the main functions and contents of the procurement quality assurance agreement? (1) The role of quality assurance agreement: A. Clearly put forward quality requirements for suppliers. The quality requirements and inspection, testing and sampling methods specified in the agreement shall be recognized and fully understood by both parties. B. Cooperate with suppliers to ensure the quality of purchased products. (2) Requirements of quality assurance agreement: A. The quality assurance requirements should be recognized by both parties to prevent hidden dangers to future cooperation. B. The quality assurance agreement shall specify the inspection methods and requirements. C. The quality requirements put forward in the quality assurance agreement should take into account the aspects of cost and risk. (3) The quality assurance requirements provided in the quality assurance agreement may include the following: A. Product standards mutually recognized by both parties. B. The supplier implements a quality management system, and the company’s third party evaluates the supplier’s quality system. C. The company’s acceptance inspection method (including the determination of the acceptable level AQL) D. Supplier submits inspection and test data records. E. Complete inspection or sampling inspection and test by the supplier. F. The procedures / specifications on which inspections or tests are based. G. Equipment, tools and working conditions used, clarifying methods, equipment, conditions and personnel skills.
3. What are the ways to reduce procurement costs? The main ways to reduce procurement costs are: (1) Seek more suitable suppliers. (2) Look for materials that are more likely to be replaced. (3) Improve procurement technology, such as increasing the number of purchases. (4) Improve the original design. (5) Improve storage and transportation methods and reduce inventory. (6) Standardize procurement.
4. What does the procurement process include? (1) Develop and implement procedures to control the quality of procurement to ensure quality control of products supplied by suppliers. (2) Ensure that suppliers accurately understand the requirements for purchasing products. (3) Ensure purchases from qualified suppliers. Each supplier’s ability to provide qualified products should be reviewed. (4) A clear quality assurance agreement should be reached with the supplier and a clear agreement on the verification method to ensure uniform verification results. (5) A method for solving quality problems shall be developed with the supplier. (6) The quality records related to the products received and the purchase quality control records shall be kept to facilitate timely resolution and handling of quality issues.
5. How should procurement be implemented? Procurement consists of four links, and each link consists of several steps. (1) Purchase plan The purpose of the plan is to formulate a purchasing plan based on customer needs and production capacity, and make a comprehensive balance to ensure timely supply of materials, while reducing inventory and costs, and reducing urgent orders. The main links are: assessing order demand, calculating order capacity, and formulating order plans. (2) Supplier evaluation The purpose of supplier evaluation is to meet the purchase quality, cost, supply, and service requirements. The main links of supplier evaluation are: preparation of supplier evaluation, preliminary selection of suppliers, trial production, batch testing, and determination of supplier list. (3) Purchase order The purpose of sending orders is to provide qualified raw materials and parts for the production department, and at the same time to evaluate and feedback the performance of the supplier group. The main links are: order preparation, supplier selection, contract signing, and contract execution tracking. (4) Purchase management The main purpose of procurement management is to correctly implement the procurement principles of the enterprise. The main links are: document approval, including planning, evaluation report, order contract, payment review and approval.
6. How to prepare a purchase order plan? (1) Understanding market demand For any production enterprise to make a more accurate order plan, it must first be familiar with the market demand plan, formulate the production demand plan from the further decomposition of market demand, and then formulate quarterly and monthly plans based on the annual plan. (2) Understanding production needs A. In order to facilitate the understanding of production material requirements, purchasing planners must be familiar with the common knowledge of production planning processes. B. MRP comes from: production plan, independent demand forecast, bill of materials file, inventory file. (3) Prepare basic information of the order The basic information of the order includes: A. Vendor information of the order material B. For materials with multiple suppliers at the same time, the proportion of each order allocated by each supplier is coordinated by the purchasing staff. C. Order cycle. According to the material items required by the production, the order formulator will query the information system to understand the basic purchasing parameters of the material. (4) Materials needed for order planning The contents of the information required for the order plan include: A. Material name, required quantity and arrival date. B. Sometimes market demand plan, production plan, and order basic information are attached.
7. How is the BOM file generated? (1) The bill of materials is the core document of the manufacturing enterprise. The purchasing department should determine the purchase plan according to the bill of materials, the production department should arrange the production according to the bill of materials, the finance department should calculate the product cost based on the bill of materials, and the planning department should determine the cost of the materials based on the bill of materials. Demand planning, other sales, storage and other departments need to use the bill of materials. (2) The bill of materials contains information on all assemblies, parts and raw materials that make up the product, and provides product composition information for the preparation of the material requirements plan. (3) The BOM of the enterprise should be stored, maintained, updated, and managed uniformly by a full-time department, and a BOM database should be established to ensure the accuracy, completeness, and generality of the BOM, improve the efficiency of querying, and avoid the use of BOM. The practice of each department’s storage, (4) Formulation of parts list. The product designer extracts data from the product design drawing to generate a list of all parts and components of the final product, forming a product parts list.
8. How to prepare a purchase order? (1) Material items familiar with demand order operations There are many types of orders. Order personnel should first be familiar with the order plan, take the time to understand the material items, take the time to understand the technical information of materials, etc .: Direct procurement from abroad may get better quality and lower prices, but at the same time increase Order operation is difficult, the procedures are complicated, and the delivery time is long. (2) Compare / confirm prices Buyers have the right to place orders / contracts with the most appropriately priced suppliers in the supplier group to safeguard the best interests of the business. (3) Confirm the standard and quantity of required materials
9. How to track purchase contracts? (1) Tracking process files A. For the procurement of any outsourced parts (materials that need to be processed by the supplier), the order personnel should track the process documents provided to the supplier. B. If it is found that the supplier does not have relevant process documents, or the process documents have quality and delivery issues, the supplier should be promptly reminded to modify. C. Suppliers and time goods are required to pay compensation in accordance with the terms of the contract if they cannot guarantee the quality, quantity and punctual supply. (2) Tracking the supplier’s raw materials After receiving the contract, some suppliers think that they are “done”. When necessary, they must remind the suppliers to prepare raw materials in a timely manner, especially for those with poor reputation / less cooperation. (3) Tracking process For one-time / large-expense project procurement, equipment procurement, construction procurement, etc., in order to ensure delivery time, quality, procurement personnel need to monitor the processing process, and even participate in the supervision of the processing process. (4) Track assembly and test Final assembly and testing is an important part of product production, and it is required that purchasers have a good professional background and industry work experience. (5) Track packaging and storage Purchasing staff can learn the storage information of materials by telephone. For important materials, the purchaser is best to visit the supplier site. For some urgent materials, the procurement personnel must fully track; for suppliers who have a stable and long-term supply, they can consider eliminating the contract tracking link.
10. What are the commonly used contract terms? A formal sales contract includes the following: (1) Name (2) Number (3) Date of signing (4) Place of signing (5) Name of buyer and seller (6) Address (7) Preamble to the contract (8) Product name (9) Quality specifications (10) Quantity (11) Packaging (12) Unit price and total price (13) Delivery period (14) Place of arrival (15) Payment (16) Insurance (17) Commodity inspection (18) Arbitration (19) Force Majeure (20) Number of contracts (21) Use of language and its effectiveness (22) Annex (23) Effective date of the contract (24) Signature and seal of both parties The following are optional parts (1) Value preservation clause (2) Price adjustment clause (3) Error range clause (4) Terms applicable to law
On November 28, 2019, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council issued the Guiding Opinions on Promoting the Development of High-Quality Trade. The “Opinions” requires that by 2022, the trade structure will be further optimized, the trade benefits will be significantly improved, the trade strength will be further enhanced, and an indicator, policy, statistics and performance evaluation system for high-quality trade development will be established. The “Opinions” proposes to strengthen international cooperation in service trade and build a “Chinese service” national brand.
The “Opinions” requires the establishment of an open, collaborative and efficient common technology research and development platform to strengthen the supporting role of manufacturing innovation in trade. Promote the organic integration of the Internet, the Internet of Things, big data, artificial intelligence, blockchain and trade, and accelerate the cultivation of new kinetic energy. Strengthen original innovation and integrated innovation. Make full use of multilateral and bilateral cooperation mechanisms to strengthen technical exchanges and cooperation. Efforts will be made to expand foreign licensing of intellectual property. Actively integrated into the global innovation network.
In addition, the “Opinions” also pointed out that the role of market mechanisms should be brought into play to promote the interaction between trade and industry and promote the process of industrial internationalization. Accelerate the development and cultivation of emerging industries and promote breakthroughs in key areas. Optimize and upgrade traditional industries and increase competitiveness. Accelerate the development of modern service industries, especially productive services, and promote the deep integration of advanced manufacturing and modern service industries. Speed ??up the construction of modern agriculture. Cultivate advanced manufacturing clusters with global influence and competitiveness.
So, what is the current situation of China’s foreign trade development?
In the past two years, the outbreak of the Sino-US trade war has had many impacts on China’s trade industry. In the face of a complex and severe foreign trade development environment, China resolutely implements the decision-making and deployment of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, does a good job of “stabilizing foreign trade,” and vigorously promotes the “five “Optimization”, continued to promote the “three constructions” of foreign trade transformation and upgrading bases, international marketing networks and trade promotion platforms, actively promoted the development of high-quality trade, and achieved positive results in various tasks. According to the latest data from the Ministry of Commerce, from January to October, China’s foreign trade development steadily improved.
1. The scale remains stable.
From January to October 2019, China’s total import and export volume was 25.63 trillion yuan, an increase of 2.4%. Among them, exports were 13.99 trillion yuan, an increase of 4.9%; imports were 11.64 trillion yuan, a slight decrease of 0.4%; the trade surplus was 2.35 trillion yuan, an increase of 42.3%. From an international comparison, according to the latest data from the WTO, the growth rate of China ’s imports and exports in the first eight months was higher than the average growth rate of major global economies.
2. The structure is continuously optimized.
The international market layout has been optimized. Imports and exports from countries along the “Belt and Road” have grown by 9.4%, accounting for an increase of 4.1 percentage points to 29.1% in 2013. The domestic regional layout is optimized. The exports of the central and western regions increased by 13.8%, which was 8.9 percentage points higher than the overall exports, accounting for an increase of 1.4 percentage points from the same period last year to 18.1%. The product structure has been continuously optimized, and the export ratio of mechanical and electrical products has reached 58.3%. Among them, exports of high-quality, high-tech, high-value-added products such as integrated circuits, photovoltaics, excavators, and medical equipment have maintained rapid growth. The export of seven major labor-intensive products increased by 6.1%. Among them, toys, textiles and footwear increased by 32.2%, 5.5% and 5.4% respectively. The operating entities continued to optimize. The export of private enterprises increased by 12.8%, accounting for an increase of 3.6 percentage points to 51.3%, driving the export growth by 6.2 percentage points. The trade structure was further optimized. General trade exports increased by 8.5%, accounting for an increase of 1.9% to 58.2% over the same period last year, and contributed 97.6% to export growth.
3. Speeding up power conversion.
Deeply cultivate new trade formats and new models, solidly promote the construction of cross-border e-commerce comprehensive test zones and market procurement and trade pilots, introduce related taxation and other supportive policies, and vigorously develop new models of new business formats such as cross-border e-commerce and market procurement Faster than the national average. Speed up the export of second-hand cars, further simplify the work flow of transfer of vehicles in different places, permit application, and customs clearance, and create a convenient environment for the export of second-hand cars. Vigorously promote the bonded trade maintenance project of processing trade on a trial basis.
At present, a new round of reform and opening-up has injected new vitality into the development of foreign trade. The Second China International Import Expo was successfully held. The simplified administration and decentralization were further promoted. The policy bonus was gradually released. The business environment continued to improve, and corporate policies gained a sense of gain. According to the World Bank’s “Business Environment Report 2020”, China’s business environment ranking jumped from 15th to 31st. The questionnaire survey shows that more than 70% of enterprises are generally satisfied with the implementation of the stable foreign trade policy. In the next step, guided by Xi Jinping’s ideology of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, we will adhere to the general tone of progress while maintaining stability, make greater efforts to stabilize expectations, stabilize enterprises, and promote high-quality trade development.
Fabric, as the name implies, is the material used to make clothing. As one of the three elements of clothing, fabric can not only interpret the style and characteristics of clothing, but also directly affect the color of clothing, modeling performance effect. Good fabrics play an absolutely critical role in garment production, so the fabric needs to be inspected and tested.
ONE. fabric inspection items and basic quality requirements
The appearance, weight, density, feel, pattern, color, width, piece length, skew or arc of weft shall be inspected.
Basic quality requirements:
1. The fabric and lining of all kinds of finished products shall not be torn, damaged, broken or seriously defective, such as coarse yarn, which may affect the wearing effect.
Yarn defects, knots, variegated yarns and fabric edges/pinholes;
2. The texture of various fabrics includes composition, feel, gloss, fabric structure, pattern and printing position, size,
The color and density shall be consistent with the sample requirements;
3. Oil, rust, color, water marking, offset printing, scratch printing and other stains are not allowed in all kinds of fabrics and materials.
4. The surface of knitted fabrics shall not be uneven, and the surface shall not have yarn joints;
TWO, fabric inspection procedures
1. Determine the inspection quantity: normally sample size is applied by international inspection standard Default Level II, or required by the customer;
2. Choose the inspection package number or volume number: the fabric inspector can randomly pick out the fabric that needs to be inspected according to the fabric factory’s fine size list
Cover all colors. The inspection quantity of each color is determined according to the proportion of each color in the batch of fabric;
3. Check the fabric quantity: check whether the actual quantity is consistent with the supplier’s fine size order, packing code order and marking code of cloth volume
4. Check the color and feel of the fabric: check whether the color and feel of the fabric are the same as the color and quality samples of the fabric confirmed by the customer;
5. Check the fabric width: measure the actual width of the fabric head, middle and tail, and the fabric width should meet the order requirements;
6. Check the color check: check whether there is any deviation between the two sides and the cloth in the middle. Fabric can not have before and after chromatic aberration, left and right
Chromatic aberration and color flower. Check whether the color and feel of the fabric are the same as the color and quality samples of the fabric confirmed by the customer; color
The discrepancy shall not be less than level 4 or the standard required by the customer, and the discrepancy shall be more than level 4;
7. Check the defects on the fabric inspection machine. The speed of the fabric should be suitable. Improper speed will affect the accuracy of cloth inspection. When making defect inspection, marks should only be deducted for visible defects that affect garment processing and affect appearance. Make records while checking.
8. When defects are found during fabric surface inspection, use the color line to make an obvious mark, so that cutting and paving materials can be found at any time. If this batch of fabric is not qualified, it needs to be returned. It is also convenient to explain the defect status and reason of return to the fabric factory, and record the deduction points.
9. Count the number of unqualified cloth rolls and count the number of defects to determine whether they are qualified.
China’s manufacturing industry has been very developed and is a big exporter of clothing, shoes and hats. However, textile is an intensive industry whose development is influenced by many aspects, such as labor cost, raw material supply, land resources, environmental protection and sales market.
Early at the center of the global footwear in European countries such as Italy, Spain and Portugal, began to shift to the relatively low cost in the 60 s of Japan, Hong Kong, China and South Korea and other countries and regions, in the late 1980 s and early ’90 s, and moved to land labor cost more cheaply, more rich industrial resources, investment environment more perfect coastal areas of China.
After entering WTO, China’s shoe industry entered the golden age of development, shoe output and export grow ceaselessly, become world shoe center. Since 2011, the world economic recovery is slow, China’s shoe industry began a difficult period of transformation and adjustment.
In recent years, although China’s share of world shoe production has declined, it remains the world’s largest shoe-producing country. In 2016, China produced 13.11 billion pairs of shoes, accounting for 57.0 percent of the world’s total. In 2017, China produced 12.62 billion pairs of shoes.
Rising labor costs, raw materials and currency fluctuations have prompted shoe companies to relocate to southeast Asia in recent years. With the full launch of china-asean free trade area, the shoe industry in Vietnam, India, Pakistan and other places develops rapidly, which poses a great potential threat to China’s shoe industry.
In recent years, China’s shoe export situation is relatively severe. On the other hand, the European Union, the United States and other countries set higher tariff barriers to Chinese shoes, which makes the export competitiveness of shoes from southeast Asian countries lower.
According to the data, China’s shoe exports reversed the downward trend in 2017, with both the quantity and the amount of exports increasing. The annual export volume reached 9.643 billion pairs, up by 3.77% over the previous year. Exports reached $45.66 billion, up 1.74% year on year.
Vietnam is China’s biggest rival among southeast Asian nations. After the 2008 global financial crisis, Vietnam gradually diverted the global textile, clothing and footwear orders undertaken by China due to its labor cost, raw material price and other advantages, and even attracted some of China’s high-quality footwear, textile and apparel enterprises’ production capacity.
In 2016, Vietnam produced a total of 1.24 billion pairs of various kinds of shoes, of which exports accounted for about 1.1 billion pairs, with the export volume reaching 7.8 billion us dollars, ranking second in the world in terms of both quantity and amount of exports, second only to China, and far ahead of Indonesia (2.6 billion us dollars), which ranked third.
This shows, Vietnam’s shoe production, export ability is in a rising stage. Some analysis points out that Vietnam’s shoe industry, textile and garment industry, due to labor costs, enjoy preferential treatment in the international market and other advantages, there is still a lot of room for growth in the international market. This also means that China’s shoe exports are facing increasing competition from Vietnam, and the latter’s labor costs and other advantages will continue to be prominent in the future.
1.Appearance 2.Quantity check 3.Smell test 4.Function test 5.Dry/wet rub test 6.Carton dropping test 7.Material check 8.Barcode scanning 9.Color abberation test 10.Dye leaking test 11.Needle detector test 12.Color difference check 13.Stitches check 14.Pull test 15.Loading test